KETAKUTAN 1965 SEBAGAI KETAKUTAN MASA KINI: Menelaah Ketakutan Sekuler, Agama dan Supranatural

Justin L Wejak

Abstract


This paper investigates how Indonesian Catholics living in outlying areas in eastern Indonesia experience fear in relation to the events that have arisen from the massacre of suspected Indonesian communists in 1965. It is concerned with why the Catholic Church created an image of communists as fear-inspiring beings, and how this fear was maintained after the communists had been largely eliminated through the state-sponsored killings of 1965/66. The object of inquiry is a historical document produced in 1967 by the Catholic Church that sought to explain events leading up to 1965. This paper analyses the forces that underlie this fear in terms of the secular fear of communism, the religious fear of Islamic fanaticism, and the supernatural fear of communist ghosts as a result of the killing of communists in 1965. It argues that the fear of 1965 is not a matter of the past but part of the present, an argument that is in accordance with Martin Heidegger’s contention that all fears are concerned with the present.

Keywords: Ketakutan, Katolik, komunis, Islam, hantu, sekuler, agama, supranatural.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anonim., Dari Madiun ke Lubang Buaja, Dari Lubang Buaja ke …?. Jakarta:Sekretariat Nasional K.M. Gunung Sahari 88, 1967.

.........(Arsip), Laporan Pertemuan Konsultasi Pastoral Nusa Tenggara. Ledalero,19-24 Oktober 1998.

Adelaar, K. Alexander and D.J. Prentice, “Malay: Its History, Role and Spread”. In Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia and the Americas. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1996.

Aditjondro, George Junus, Manuscript. Dated 3 February 2008 (http:// www.mail-archive.com/wanita-muslimah@yahoogroups.com/msg42559.html), 2008.

Anderson, Benedict R. and Ruth T. McVey, “A Preliminary Analysis of the October 1, 1965, Coup in Indonesia”. Interim Reports Series. Ithaca,New York: Modern Indonesia Project, Southeast Asia Program,Cornell University, 1971.

Aritonang, Jan Sihar and KarelSteenbrink. Eds., A History of Christianity in Indonesia. Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke NV Brill, 2008.

Badri, Jusuf, Inilah Komunisme dan “Agama” Komunis. Jakarta: Penerbit Restu Agung, 1997.

Barnes, R.H., “Fransiskus/Usman Buang Duran; Catholic, Muslim, Communist”. In Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en, Volkenkunde (159),no: 1, Leiden (2003), hlm.1-29.

Coppel, Charles A. Ed., Violent conflicts in Indonesia: analysis, representation,resolution. London, New York: Routledge, 2006.

Cribb, Robert. Ed., The Indonesian Killings 1965-1966 Studies from Java and Bali. Clayton: Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University, 1990.

Cribb, Robert and Colin Brown, Modern Indonesia: A history since 1945.London and New York, Longman, 1995.

Crouch, Harold, “Another Look at the Indonesian “Coup””. In Indonesia.Vol. 15 (Apr. 1973), hlm.1-20.

da Cunha, Ignas, Viator Parera, Hendrik Djawa and John Prior, Berpastoral di Tengah Badai: Potret Gereja Maumere 1956-1969. Ende: Arnoldus Ende, 1999.

D’Arcy, Martin C., Communism and Christianity. New York: Penguin Books,1956.

Farid, Hilmar, “Indonesia’s original sin: mass killings and capitalist expansion, 1965-66”. In Inter-Asia Cultural Studies. Volume 6,

Number 1 (2005), hlm.1-15.

Farram, Steven, “Revolution, Religion and Magic: The PKI in West Timor, 1924-1966”. In Bijdragen Tot De Taal-, Land- En Volkenkunde (BKI), Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia and Oceania, 158.1 (Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijk Instituut Voor Taal-, Land-En Volkenkunde (KITLV), Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, 2002), hlm.21-48. “The PKI in West Timor and Nusa Tenggara Timur: 1965 and beyond”. In Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-en Volkenkunde, 166-4 (2010), hlm.381-403.

Fernandez, I.Y., “Bahasa Lamaholot Ile Mandiri”. Tesis Sarjana. Yogyakarta:Universitas Gajah Mada, 1977.

Fox, J.J. Editor, “Comment on Early Austronesian Social Organization: the Essence of Language, by R. Blust”. Current Anthropology 21 (1980).

Graham, P., “To follow the blood: the path of life in a domain of eastern Flores, Indonesia”. Ph.D. Thesis. The Australian National University,Canberra, 1991.

Heidegger, Martin, Being and Time. Trans. John Macquarrie & Edward Robinson. Oxford UK & Cambridge USA: Blackwell, 1963 [1978]. Being and Time. Trans. Joan Stambaugh. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1953 [1996].

Heryanto, Ariel, State Terrorism and Political Identity in Indonesia: Fatally Belonging. London and New York: Routledge, 2006. “Film, Teror Negara dan Luka Bangsa”. In Tempo (Edisi 1-7 Oktober 2012).

Hindley, Donald, “Indonesian Politics 1965-7: The September 30 1968.Movement and the Fall of Sukarno”. In The World Today. Vol. 24,No. 8 (aug., 1968), hlm.345-356.

Kammen, Douglas and Katharine McGregor. Eds., The contours of mass violence in Indonesia, 1965-68. Singapore: NUS Press, 2012.

Kierkegaard, Fear and Trembling, ed. by Evans, C. Stephens and Sylvia Walsh. United States of America: Cambridge University Press,2006.

Krell, David Farrell. Ed., 1993. Martin Heidegger: Basic Writings. San Francisco: Harper Collins, 1993.

Kroef, J.M. Van Der, “Origins of the 1965 Coup in Indonesia: Probabilitiesand Alternatives”. In Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. Vol.3, No. 2(Sep., 1972), hlm.277-298.

Lewis, Douglas E., People of the Source: The Social and Ceremonial Order of Tana Wai Brama on Flores. Dordrecht-Holland/Providence-U.S.A:Foris Publications, 1988.

Luhulima, James, Menyingkap Dua Hari Tergelap di Tahun 1965: Melihat Peristiwa G30S dari Perspektif Lain. Jakarta: Kompas, 2006.

Markas Besar ABRI, Bahaya Laten Komunisme Di Indonesia. Volumes 1-5.Jakarta: Pusat Sejarah dan Tradisi ABRI, 1995.

Mintz, Jeanne S., Muhammad, Marx, Marhaen: Akar Sosialisme Indonesia.Translated by Zulhilmiyasri. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar Offset,2002.

Mount, Frank, Wrestling with Asia: A Memoir. Australia: Connor Court Publishing Pty Ltd., 2012.

Pour, Julius, Gerakan 30 September: Pelaku, Pahlawan & Petualang. Jakarta:Kompas, 2010.

Romly, A.M., Agama Menentang Komunisme. Jakarta: PT. Bina Rena Pariwara (BRP), 1997.

Rosenberg, Tina, The Haunted Land: Facing Europe’s Ghosts After Communism.Germany: Reed Business Information, Inc., 1995.

Roosa, John, Pretext for mass murder: the September 30th Movement and Suharto’s coup d’etat in Indonesia. Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Press, 2006.

Roosa, John, Ayu Ratih & Hilmar Farid. Eds., Tahun yang tak pernah berakhir: memahami pengalaman korban 65: esai-esai sejarah lisan.Jakarta: Lembaga Studi dan Advokasi Masyarakat, 2004.

Soedarmanta, J.B., Pater Beek, SJ: Larut Tetapi Tidak Hanyut. Jakarta:Penerbit Obor (Anggota IKAPI), 2008.

Sukanta, Putu Oka, “1965 Is Not Over”. In INDONEWS. No. 4 (Oct-Nov 2007), hlm.2-4.Tempo, Liputan Khusus. “Pengakuan Algojo 1965”. In Tempo (Edisi 1-7 Oktober 2012), hlm.29-162.

Wahyuningroem, Sri Lestari, “Seducing for Truth and Justice: Civil Society Initiatives for the 1965 Mass Violence in Indonesia”. In Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs. No. 32, 3 (2013), hlm. 115-142.

Webb, R.A.F. Paul, “The Sickle and the Cross: Christians and Communists in Bali, Flores, Sumba and Timor, 1965-67”. In Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, Volume XVII. No. 1 (March 1986), hlm.94-112, 1986.

Wejak, Justin L. “Beep Beep! The Meaning of a Beep in Lembata”. In INDONEWS, No. 2 (May-June 2007), hlm.5.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31385/jl.v14i1.8.83-108

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Flag Counter Creative Commons License
Copyright© 2015 JURNAL LEDALERO This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Ledalero Catholic School of Philosophy Jalan Trans Maumere-Ende - Sikka - Flores - Nusa Tenggara Timur - Indonesia Telp/Fax: 0382 2426535